Madhi, Yahia Saeed (1985)
Effect of germination, cooking, canning and storage on the nutrient composition of four varieties of lentils (Lens esculenta Moench)..
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Various parameters (physical and biochemical) of the dry seeds of four varieties of lentils (Lens esculenta Moench): two Syrians, one Jordanian, and one American were studied as were those of seedlings grown for up to 5 days in the dark (25°C and 35°C) and in the light (25°C). The nutrients studied were: carbohydrates, lipids, crude fibre, proteins, and the vitamins: vitamin C, thiamine, and riboflavin. On the whole, there were no wide differences in nutritional values between the four lentil varieties studied. 1. Dark-grown seedlings (25°C) were found to be nutritionally better in retaining their vitamins than those grown at 35°C, and also than those grown at 25°C in the light. On the other hand, light-grown seedlings were nutritionally better in terms of protein quantity. 2. The four varieties of lentil seeds were also home processed (soaked in water and cooked for 1 h at 100°C). Total available carbohydrates, individual soluble sugars, free amino acids, and the three vitamins decreased significantly, lipids and proteins decreased slightly, while crude fibre increased significantly after home processing. Two chemicals, ammonium carbonate and trisodium phosphate, added in the soaking solution significantly decreased cooking time. 3. The lentil seeds were also canned. Most nutrients studied decreased after canning. 4. Storage of the canned products for 1 year at 25°C caused further losses in total available carbohydrates, proteins, free amino acids, and the 3 vitamins, while crude fibre again increased. Storing the canned products at 35°C for one year did affect the various nutrients but the decreases were not all that different from those stored at 25°C. 5. Parallel studies using scanning electron microscopy showed changes in the cellular structure of germinated, cooked, and canned lentil seeds. During germination, starch granules change their shape, become porous and easily breakable, and the gaps between starch granules become larger. In cooked lentils, the cells become more separate, and starch granules change their shapes. In canned seeds, starch granules become rough and show a loss of birefringence. 6. These studies have shown that compared to seeds germinated under the different conditions, dry unprocessed seeds are the more nutritious. It has been shown that canned seeds too can offer certain advantages nutritionally. However, they are more costly to produce than are dry seeds. Therefore, the home processing of lentil seeds is very beneficial nutritionally in a diet sadly lacking in carbohydrates, in proteins, and in vitamin C, in thiamine, and in riboflavin.
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in Royal Holloway Research Online.Last modified on 26-Jan-2017
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Institution: University of London, Royal Holloway and Bedford New College (United Kingdom).