Development of the Well-being questionnaire short-form in Japanese: the W-BQ12

Afsane Riazi, Clare Bradley, Shalleen Barendse and Hitoshi Ishii


Afsane Riazi, Clare Bradley, Shalleen Barendse and Hitoshi Ishii (2006) Development of the Well-being questionnaire short-form in Japanese: the W-BQ12. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 4 (40). pp. 1-10. ISSN 1477-7525

Our Full Text Deposits

Full text access: Open

Full Text - 271.36 KB

Links to Copies of this Item Held Elsewhere


Background: The Well-being questionaire (W-BQ) was designed to measure psychological well-being in people with diabetes. This study aimed to develop a Japanese version and a short form of the W-BQ.

Methods: A linguistic validation process produced a preliminary Japanese version of the 22-item W-BQ, which was distributed to 550 patients. Factor structure, reliability (Cronbach's alpha) and aspects of validity (hypothesised group differences and correlations with other measures) were evaluated.

Results: Questionaires were returned by 464 patients (84.4%). Preliminary factor analysis revealed that the Depression and Anxiety items were dispersed according to the positive or negative direction of the wording. A 12-item W-BQ (Japanese W-BQ12), consisting of three 4-item subscales (Negative Well-being, Energy and Positive Well-being), was constructed that balanced positively and negatively worded items. Cronbach's alpha was high (>0.85) for the 12-item questionnaire and consistently high (>0.82) across sex and treatment subgroups. Cronbach's alpha for subscale scores in the total sample ranged from 0.69 (Energy) to 0.80 (Positive Well-being). Expected subgroup differences indicated significantly poorer well-being in women compared with men and in insulin-treated patients compared with tablet/diet treated patients. Discriminant and convergent validity was supported by minimal correlations between W-BQ12 scores and HbAIc and low-to-moderate correlations with Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ) scores.

Conclusion: The W-BQ12 (Japanese) is short, reliable and valid measure of psychological well-being that is suitable for use with people with diabetes. The items selected to produce the W-BQ12 (Japanese) have since produced psychometrically sound 12-item short-form measures in other translations for use in diabetes and in other chronic illnesses.

Information about this Version

This is a Draft version
This version's date is: 03/07/2006
This item is peer reviewed

Link to this Version

Item TypeJournal Article
TitleDevelopment of the Well-being questionnaire short-form in Japanese: the W-BQ12
AuthorsRiazi, Afsane
Bradley, Clare
Barendse, Shalleen
Ishii, Hitoshi
DepartmentsFaculty of Science\Psychology



Deposited by () on 01-Mar-2010 in Royal Holloway Research Online.Last modified on 19-May-2011



1. Bradley C, Gamsu D: Guidelines for encouraging psychologicalDiabetic Med 1994, well-being: Report of a Working Group of the World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe and International Diabetes Federation European Region St. Vincent DeclarationAction Programme for Diabetes.11:510-516.


2. Weinberger M, Kirkman MS, Samsa GP, Cowper PA, Shortliffe EA,Simel DL, Feusser JR: The relationship between glycaemic control Med Care 1994,and health-related quality of life in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.32:1173-1181.


3. Bradley C: The Well-being Questionnaire. In Handbook of PsychologyEdited by: Bradley C. Chur: Harwood Academic and Diabetes: A Guide to Psychological Measurement in Diabetes Research and Practice Publishers; 1994:89-109.

4. Bradley C, Lewis KS: Measures of psychological well-being andDiabetic Medicine 1990, treatment satisfaction developed from the responses of people with tablet-treated diabetes. 7:445-451.


5. Warr PB, Banks MH, Ullah P: The experience of unemploymentBrit J of Psychol 1985, among black and white urban teenagers. 76:75-87.


6. Zung WWK: A self-rating depression scale. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1965, 12:63-70.

7. McMIllan C, Bradley C, Gibney J, Russell-Jones DL, Sönksen PH: PsychometricHealth and Quality2006, 4(1):16. properties of two measures of psychological wellbeing in adult growth hormone deficiency. of Life Outcomes

8. Mitchell J, Bradley C: Psychometric evaluation of the 12-itemQual Life Res 2001, 10:465-473. Well-being Questionnaire for use with people with maculardisease.

9. Acquadro C, Jambon B, Ellis D, Marquis P: Language and translationIn Quality of life and pharmacoeconomics in clinical trials Edited by: Spilker B. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven Publishers; 1996:575-585.

10. Ishii H, Bradley C, Riazi A, Barendse S, Yamamoto T: The Japanese Journal of 2000, 192:809-814. (a Japanese Journal version of the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ): translation and clinical evaluation. Clinical Experimental Medicine publishing in Japanese).

11. Cronbach LJ: Coefficient alpha and the internal structure ofPsychometrika 1951, 16:297-334. tests.

12. Watson D, Clarke LA, Tellegen A: Development and validationJournal of Personality and Social Psychology 1988, 54:1063-1070. of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales.

13. Nunnally JC: Psychometric theory 2nd edition. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1978.

14. Thibult N: Tables: Clinical, biological and psychological analyses In Report to the World Health Organisation, RegionalCopenhagen; 1990. of the continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) pump study. Office for Europe

15. Speight J, Barendse S, Bradley C: Impact of positively vs negativelyProc Brit2000, 8:21. worded items on the factor structure of three psychosocial measures: W-BQ22, W-BQ12 and HADS. Psychol Soc

16. Pouwer F, Snoek FJ, van der Ploeg HM, Ader HJ, Heine RJ: The WellbeingPsychol Med 2000, 30:455-462. Questionnaire: evidence for a 3-factor structure with12 items (W-BQ12).

17. Breslau N, Chilcoat H, Schultz LR: Anxiety disorders and theJ Gend Specif1998, 1:33-39.emergence of sex difference in major depression. Med

18. Witthaus E, Stewart J, Bradley C: Treatment satisfaction and psychologicalDiab Med 2001, well-being with insulin glargine compared with NPH in patients with Type 1 diabetes. 18: 619-625.



19. Pouwer F, van der Ploeg HM, Ader HJ, Heine RJ, Snoek FJ: The 12-Diabetes Care 1999, 22:2004-2010.

20. Rasch G: Probabilistic models for some intelligence and attainment tests Chicago: University of Chicago Press; 1960.

21. Bollen KA, Long JS: Testing structural equation models Newbury Park,Calif: Sage Publications; 1993. item Well-being Questionnaire: An evaluation of its validity and reliability in Dutch people with diabetes. issues.